the right to not award prizes, based on their judgment of the quality of submissions. At vents and other reducing habitats, chemoautotrophic symbionts provide organic nutrients for animal hosts in at least seven different phyla. Entries cannot be altered or changed after they have been submitted. The judges decisions are final and no correspondence will be entered into. Some hosts, such as the marine macroalga Delisea pulchra, respond to quorum-signaling pathogens by producing halogenated furanones that act as signal mimics, blocking the microbes communication ( 75 ). Attention to this ancient repertoire of eukaryotebacterial interactions can provide important insights into larger questions in metazoan evolution, from the origins of complex multicellularity to the drivers of morphological complexity itself. The weight of evidence supporting this view has finally reached a tipping point. Thus, the discovery that at least one choanoflagellate, Salpingoeca rosetta, responds to signals from specific bacteria to initiate colony formation through cell division hints at an ancient involvement of bacteria in the initiation of multicellularity ( 9 ).
Gilbert, Ute Hentschel, Nicole King, Staffan Kjelleberg, Andrew. Adult (19 first Prize: 1000, second Prize: 400, third Prize: 100. Long lists for all competitions will be announced in late May and shortlists in early June. Any submissions with author name on the attachment with the story text will be disqualified. In aquatic environments such as the deep sea, host fishes and invertebrates conform to the temperature of the environment, so temperature-driven coevolution would be unlikely in these habitats. We review the wealth of new data on the roles of bacteria in animal development and physiology and conclude with a discussion of the nesting of animalbacterial relationships within their larger ecological frameworks. The isrf is interested in original research ideas that take new approaches and suggest new solutions, to real world social problems.
Although the biosphere comprises many diverse taxonomic groups, our focus here is principally on the interactions between one group of microorganisms, the domain Bacteria, and one group of complex multicellular organisms, the animals. Committee on a New Biology for the 21st Century (2009) A New Biology for the 21st Century : Ensuring the United States Leads the Coming Biology Revolution Board on Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academies, The National Academies Press, (Washington, DC). Thus, the current-day relationships of protists with bacteria, from predation to obligate and beneficial symbiosis ( 5, 6 were likely already operating when animals first appeared. For example, rats introduced onto small Pacific islands decimated seabird populations, resulting in decreased sea-to-land transport of nutrients (guano) and altered decomposition and nutrient cycling by soil microbes ( 112 ). The maximum word counts are 1500 words for Senior entries and 750 words for Junior entries.
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