. Commanders characterized such behavior as cowardice, but in fact, such local ceasefires reflected deeper ties among the combatants as well as aspirations for political reconciliation which must eventually occur. . 308 The main organizational strategies of the antiwar movement involved education, political action, demonstrations (mobilization and draft and GI resistance. . 580; and Wells, The War Within,. Using an expansive definition of subversion, they employed the FBI and CIA to conduct surveillance and sabotage of antiwar groups, including Kings Southern Christian Leadership Conference (sclc). . To some degree, Johnson administration officials also deceived themselves, predicting that massive bombing of the north and the introduction.S. Bombing of North Vietnam in the spring of 1972 catalyzed the formation of a Campaign to End the Air War. .
One of the first popular studies was The Vietnam Reader: Articles and Documents on American Foreign Policy and the Viet-Nam Crisis (1965 edited by Marcus Raskin and Bernard Fall, which provided the requisite historical background for understanding American involvement in Vietnam. . 400 Anticipating criticism, the White House had taken preemptive steps to counter it by distributing background material on Cambodia to newspaper editors, placing pro-Nixon ads in more than forty newspapers through a front group, preparing announcements that private polls showed heavy public support for the. This allegation provided legal cover for the administration to conduct surveillance of Fulbright and wiretap his telephone. The brothers violently repressed the Cao Dai and Hoa Hao religious sects and the Binh Xuyen, a Mafia-type group, after these groups formed a United Front of National Forces and called for Diems ouster in March 1955. . We stand for a strong America versus a weak America. . Kennedy of Massachusetts, for example, remarked at a symposium in Washington sponsored by the American Friends of Vietnam in June 1956, that South Vietnam was the cornerstone of the Free World in Southeast Asia and a test of American responsibility and determination in Asia. For the next ten years, he lived as a private citizen in Hue. 320 The sane March on Washington on November 27, 1965, drew a smaller crowd and fared no better in the press. .